Oncology is an exclusive branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of cancer. The term oncology derives from the Greek word onkos meaning bulk or tumor. Oncology mainly deals with the diagnosis of cancer, therapy which combines surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and others. The most compelling diagnostic tool used in the study of oncology is medical history. It combines specific symptoms qualified by the patient and nature of complaint. Other diagnostic tools are
Biopsy – a medical test which connect removal of cells or tissues from available area of malignancy for microscopic examination
Endoscopy – This available internal examination of the patient’s body by inserting a small scope to view the lesion.
X-Ray, CT scan, and Ultrasound – These are radiological procedure used to check out the patient.
Blood Tests – Pathological examination like blood tests is a common procedure to diagnose cancer.
Scintigraphy, Positron emission tomography – These are procedure of nuclear medicine used to diagnose cancer.
Treatment of cancer depends on special cases and the nature and extent of malignancy of the tumor. The most common process of treatment is
Surgery – If the case permits, surgery or discharge of the malignant portion of the body is removed.
Chemotherapy – It is the use of chemical substances to treat the disease. Often cytotoxic drugs are used for chemotherapy.
Radiotherapy – Ionizing radiation is used as a medical procedure to cure and control the improvement of malignant cells.
Hormone Manipulation – is mainly used in cases of breast and prostrate cancer
Vaccine – It is an antigenic arrangement used to establish immunity to the disease.
To treat social complication like neglect and alienation, patients suffering from cancer or cured from cancer need palliative responsibility. Physical complications that are related with the treatment of cancer are pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue and immobility.
Oncology department has a major Tumour Board, comprising medical, surgical and radiation oncologists, and diagnostic specialist who prepare comprehensive advice on the best course of treatment for patients. The department develop world-class cancer cure.