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Gastroenterology

Inflammatory Bowel

What is Inflammatory Bowel (Crohn’s) Disease?

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is the term used for an assemblage of disorders where the intestines become red and swollen (inflamed). This appears when an immune reaction of the body is against its own intestinal tissue. Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two types of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease can influence the colon or the small intestine and it also associate any part of the gastrointestinal tract and results in malnutrition, abdominal pain and serious diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis disturbs the large intestine (colon). This disease results in continuing infection in part of the digestive tract.

Symptoms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

When IBD flares up in the case of chronic diseases, it can lead to various symptoms that can sometimes expire or decrease and a person can recovery to their normal health. The symptoms of IBD vary from mild to serious depending upon which part of the intestinal tract is distressed. Some of the symptoms are –

Loss of appetite

Diarrhea that could be bloody

Weight loss

Abdominal pain and cramps

Iron deficiency anemia due to blood loss

Fever

Severe urgency to have a bowel movement

Causes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

There is no perfect cause of IBD. However, the disease could be due to blocked of the body’s immune system. Ulcerative Colitis and Corhn’s disease both can be observe in the family history of patients. Few environmental factors can also be important for causing ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. IBD can also be effect by psychological, infectious, immunologic and genetic point.

Diagnosis for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The tests depend on the symptoms of IBD that include –

Complete Blood Count

If a patient has severe bleeding then hemoglobin level may drop and the count of the red blood cells decrease.

An inflammation in the body occurs when there is an increase in the count of white blood cells.

Stool Examination

The presence of blood traces in the stool can only be examined through a fecal occult blood test.

A stool is properly examined for eliminating the possibilities of parasitic, viral or bacterial causes of diarrhea.

Colonoscopy: This helps in examining the entire colon.

Barium X-ray

Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: In this test, a barium is given in the form of an enema which retains in the colon and the x-rays can be taken. Through this, colon in patients having ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease and also abnormalities in the rectum can also be noticed.

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The test is used for finding abnormalities in the upper gastrointestinal tract. A patient is required to swallow a chalky white substance known as barium. This barium helps in coating the inside of the intestinal tract which can further documented on x-rays.

Sigmoidoscopy: The last one-third part of the large intestine can be visualized by using a

sigmoidoscope. This one-third part includes the sigmoid colon and the rectum. The test helps in examining bleeding, ulcers and inflammation.

Upper Endoscopy: An endoscope is used if a patient has gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and nausea. The duodenum, esophagus and stomach are examined using an endoscope.

Treatments for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Surgical or medical treatments are possible for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both the types of IBD- ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease can be treated with the support of several drugs. Surgery is the last option possible and it depends upon the kinds of inflammatory bowel disease. It is available to ulcerative colitis over surgery. Certain drugs can also be used for treating IBD.

Robot Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

DA Vinci robotic surgery is a minimally invasive method that associates less scarring, small incisions and also results in quick improvement. The robotic surgery produces the best results in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. This method involves patented surgical equipment, state of the art surgical platform and high definition vision. The method reduces the side effects of inflammatory bowel disease.

Benefits of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treatment

After the treatment of IBD, there is a drastic improvement in the health relevant quality of life of a patient. The health related quality of life is seen in both the cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

Intestinal Fistulas

Tubular relation between the skin, the bowel or other organs is describing as intestinal fistulas. The formation of the fistulas appears when there is protracted inflammation over every layer of the bowel. Then fistulas continued to tunnel through other tissue layers. Fistulas are various and are more generally seen in Crohn’s disease. Fistulas can link the bowel to the skin about the anus, to the abdominal wall, to other loops of the bowel and also with internal locations like scrotum, vagina, urinary bladder and muscles.

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